Till now almost all cameras in the market were estimated by quantity of pixels which the digital camera can shot (than it is more than them, the photo will be especially detailed). The quantity of pixels depends on the physical size and concentration of elements on a sensor control. The sensor control is heart of the digital camera, and as a sensor control acts with the help of different chip.
The sensor control consists of set of photosensitive elements (photosites), containing photo diodes. Elements on the chip are ordered and form a matrix. Thus, matrix elements can be compared with pixels (no less than to name). Elements react to light and create the electric charge which size is proportional to quantity of got light. It is possible to measure quantity of pixels of a sensor control on number of lines and columns AxB (for example, 640×480), and it is possible – on total number of elements (for example, 1 000 000 pixels). One million pixels usually calls Megapixel (1 MP). Anyway the pixel is the least element of the digital image. Therefore this term is used as well at the description of monitors and scanners.
Some manufacturers sometimes give in the technical specification two pixel characteristics KMOP/PZS of a sensor control. The first of them shows total number of pixels (for example, 3 340 000 pixels or 2,11 MP), and the second – number of active pixels which are used for image reception. The difference between these numbers usual doesn’t exceed 5 %. There are some reasons of such discrepancy. First, at sensor control production “dark”, defective pixels (creation completely a serviceable sensor control is almost impossible at existing technologies) are created. Secondly, some pixels are used for other purposes, for example, for calibration of signals of a sensor control. Light doesn’t get on a part of the pixels located along the edges. These pixels help to specify background noise which then will be subtracted from given other pixels.
Also the sensor control part cannot be considered for creation of the image with a required format of a shot (the relation of quantity of points across to quantity of points on a vertical). By the way, dependence of the size of a photo on number of pixels not linear, but logarithmic. Transition from 3 MP to 4 MP to a sensor control increases image size not by 25 %, and on smaller value. For this reason even in the newest digital cameras with the increased concentration of pixels on a sensor control the image size slightly differs from the previous models that hardly so it is important for the majority of users.
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