The most curious users of personal computers running Windows operating systems, of course, at least once in their life looked into the network settings and connect to the internet via a modem or local area network. And somewhere in the depths of tabs, among icons and buttons, they will no doubt find such a mysterious thing as “Internet Protocol (TCP / IP)”, and perhaps even set it up themselves.
Let’s talk about what exactly TCP / IP is and how it works. First of all, what is a network protocol? By the analogy with the “protocols” of human communication it is a set of rules by which computers exchange the information. Naturally, it is necessary that the participants of the ‘communication’ spoke the same language, which is supported by a common protocol. TCP / IP became such a “language” for the Internet adopted as a standard in 1983.
Abbreviation TCP / IP stands for a whole family of protocols comparable with each other and designed to solve different problems. To understand what this looks like, imagine a layer cake. The top layer is a cream. It consists of everything that we use every day when we read news on the Internet, send and receive email, communicate on ICQ, download movies, music and software. This is due to application-level protocols. The cream is on a thick cake, it is a protocol of transport level. The delivery of all our letters, files and other things is impossible without them.
Two main transport level protocols: TCP and UDP. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), also called the protocol of safe delivery. This means that all information posted on this protocol is guaranteed to be delivered specifically to the recipient, to whom it went, but won’t distort and will not be lost. To guard against all these evils the connection is established between the sender and receiver in the TCP before the data sending, as well as different methods of detecting and correcting errors.
UDP (User Datagram Protocol), does not differ so scrupulous, and therefore called a protocol of unreliable delivery. However, using this protocol can be much faster to deliver information which is widely used in online gaming and real-time transmission of video data. Below a thick cake there is a chocolate layer from the IP (Internet Protocol) protocol. Since the basic work on the correct processing of the data is taken on the transport protocols lying above, IP addresses are quite freely with them. For example, data packets can be sent in any order, but not in that which they originally were, also they can be duplicated, arrive to the destination in different ways, corrupted and completely disappear in the bowels of the network. Nevertheless, one couldn’t work without the Internet Protocol because it connects two computer systems located in different networks, different countries and continents. It is at this level of TCP / IP the network addresses exist, which we represent as sets of 4 numbers separated by dots, for example: 127.0.0.1. IP identifies the recipient and sender of data for such unique identifiers. The ICMP protocol is also belong for the network layer, to whom we are owned a wonderful ping command and no less wonderful command tracert. There is a layer of channel protocols below the network layer including Ethernet, IEEE 802.11, ATM, SLIP, and others, very little talking to an ordinary user, but very important for the development, for example, network equipment and mobile devices.
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